A Comparison Report by Provaris Energy

Compressed Hydrogen Supply Chain

In May 2023, Provaris Energy announced the successful completion of its updated “Hydrogen Marine Transport Comparison” Report. The findings of this Report further solidify the numerous advantages of compression as the preferred storage and maritime transport solution, being a low-cost delivery method for the regional marine transportation of hydrogen.

Why did compression beat both liquefaction and ammonia?

Provaris’ Report compared the delivery cost of hydrogen using compression, liquefaction, and ammonia as the transportation method – across the entire value supply chain, from renewable energy generation to delivered gaseous hydrogen to the customer. The key outcomes of the Provaris Report were:


Less Energy Use and Losses with Compression

Energy use and losses across the entire supply chain (generation, production, and delivery). Compression showed below 20% energy use and losses compared to liquefaction and ammonia that exceeded 40%.


Load following capability to match Renewable Generation Profile

Unlike liquefaction or ammonia, compression demonstrated its remarkable capability to “100% load follow” a renewable generation profile, enabling seamless alignment with hydrogen production and eliminating the capital investment and associated costs in “battery and hydrogen storage”.


Lower Delivered Cost of H2

Compression delivered up to 20% reduction for regional delivered costs at 2,000 nautical miles and 100,000 tonnes per annum.


Imports Required in Europe by 2030

Compression is a compelling solution for regional green hydrogen trade to support the REPowerEU requirement for 10Mtpa imports by 2030.

Low Energy Content of Compression – So What?

While much has been made of the low energy content of hydrogen in compressed form vs. liquid or ammonia form, Provaris argues that the real question is “are the costs and energy use/losses associated with such converting hydrogen to i) ammonia and then crack back to hydrogen; or ii) liquefy and then regassification - really worth it to just increase the energy content of hydrogen for shipping?”.

side view of provaris ship carrier, 2d illustration

Based on the analysis and outcomes of the Report – compression is the most efficient when you analyse the full value chain – not just the carrier. See results below.

LCOH results for a combined solar/wind generation profile to deliver 100,000tpa hydrogenLCOH results for a combined solar/wind generation profile to deliver 100,000tpa hydrogen
Compression (H2Neo)
Compression (H2Max)
front view of provaris ship carrier, 2d illustration

Our strategy is to be the first-mover in regional supply of green hydrogen to support industrial decarbonisation

“Compression for the marine transportation of hydrogen is the simplest and most cost-effective option for regional distances. The entire value chain from renewable generation to delivery to the customer needs to be analysed to provide the true picture – exactly what Provaris’ ‘Hydrogen Marine Transport Comparison Report’ achieved.”
Garry Triglavcanin
Product Development Director

For more information please contact info@provaris.energy with your questions.



key to delivering hydrogen projects pre-2030

This comprehensive analysis underscores the compelling advantages of compression, the supply chain efficiency, and its potential to simplify and revolutionize regional transportation of hydrogen. Provaris is confident that these findings will drive further adoption and accelerate the hydrogen industry towards a sustainable and economic solution.

Importantly the report ratifies that Provaris’ proprietary H2Neo (430t) and H2Max (2,000t) compressed hydrogen carriers and H2Leo compressed storage barge provide a highly competitive marine transportation (and storage) option for hydrogen, at scale over shipping distances of up to 4,000 nautical miles.

Our strategy is to be the first-mover in regional supply of green hydrogen to support industrial decarbonisation

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